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The United Republic of Tanzania


The United Republic of Tanzania



The Engaruka, as popularly known among historical societies, is an iconic historical site that depicts a prominent iron-age farming community that is believed to have been established in the 15th century. A German scientist, Gustav Fisher, made the first official discovery of this site in 1883, and compared the Engaruka remnants to the crumbled walls of ancient castles.

The researchers have been able to confirm that Engaruka once hosted seven villages with thousands of residents, who invented a sophisticated irrigation and farming system that included canals lined with stone blocks that channeled water from the rift escarpment to several stone-lined cultivation terraces.

About 20 square kilometers of farmland were supported by this irrigation system, and the area’s fertility was systematically enhanced using stall-fed cattle manure, which was also utilized to minimize soil degradation.

Midway through the 18th century, Engaruka was abandoned for unknown reasons. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the area, such as the identity of the founders, how they developed their farming system, and why they left. 

The residents were most likely progenitors of today’s Iraqw people, who practically use similarly intricate irrigation techniques. It is thought, however, that the area was abandoned owing to reduced river flow or territorial disputes with other ethnic groups.


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Ngorongoro is managed by a different government authority namely Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA). To get their details including fees kindly visit their website

The Ngorongoro Crater is home to much more than wildlife safaris, with important cultural and archaeology here too.

Away from the wildlife, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area has other areas of significance. Oldupai Gorge is one of Africa’s most important archaeological excavations where some of the world’s most humanoid remains were discovered.

When travelling to foreign destinations it is always respectful to dress modestly and we suggest the emphasis is on comfortable clothing.

It is often warm on the plains and at lower altitudes but cold in the hilly and mountainous areas; a rain jacket, fleece and good quality walking shoes/boots are essential.

The Ngorongoro Crater is rich in wildlife, with many species calling this vast area home.

The Ngorongoro Crater is the world’s largest intact volcanic caldera with a diameter of 16km and a crater wall over 600m high. It is a true Garden of Eden, an extraordinary natural sanctuary for some of Africa’s densest large mammal populations and predators. Over 400 spotted hyenas exist in the crater (especially on the eastern shore of Lake Magadi), along with lion’s, leopard (spotted on occasions in the swampy areas), and black-backed and golden jackals.

The lion population has varied during the years partly due to migration into and out of the crater but mainly because of the vulnerability of the compact population. Cheetah, although common in the Conservation Area, are scarce in the Crater possibly due to the high rate of competition from other predators.

Elephant (especially around the Gorigor Swamp area) and buffalo are regularly seen. There also exist residential populations and large concentrations of wildebeest (over 10,000 in number), Burchell’s zebra (approximately 5,000), and buffalo, Thomson’s and grant’s gazelle in the open grasslands of the crater floor. The Ngorongoro Crater is perhaps the best place in Africa to see the endangered black rhinoceros.